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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 16, No.2 Dec. 2019

Chan Suet Fong & Dorothy DeWitt
 
Iqbal Ahmad, Hamdan Said, & Faizah Mohamad Nor
 
Shanizan Herman Mohd Radzi, Wee Hoe Tan & Amri Yusoff
 
Abdo Mohamed Al Mekhlafi & Mohamed El Tahir Osman
 
Jayaraman Krishnaswamy, Seow Soo Koon & Nagaletchimee Annamalai
 
Mary Fatimah Subet & Mohd Ridzuan Md Nasir
 

 
Breadth and Depth of Academic Vocabulary Knowledge: Assessing their Roles in Academic Reading and Writing
1Souba Rethinasamy & Chew-Wei Lee
Faculty of Language and Communication, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: rsouba@unimas.my

ABSTRACT

 Purpose - This study investigated the relationship between English language learners (ELLs) academic vocabulary and their performance in academic reading and writing. The specific objectives were to find out the extent to which scores on breadth and depth of academic vocabulary knowledge contributed to ELLs’ performance in academic reading and writing.

Methodology - A quantitative research design was employed. The Vocabulary Levels Test, Productive Vocabulary Levels Test, Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test as well as reading comprehension and writing tests were administered to 90 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak undergraduates.

Findings - Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between breadth and depth of academic vocabulary and both academic reading comprehension and writing performance of the ELLs. Vocabulary depth had a stronger correlation with academic reading comprehension while vocabulary breadth had a stronger correlation with academic writing. Both dimensions of vocabulary knowledge were positively correlated with each other. Multiple linear regression showed that vocabulary depth predicted more of the overall variance of reading comprehension performance while vocabulary breadth was a more powerful predictor of performance in writing. Thus, both breadth and depth of academic vocabulary knowledge were powerful predictors of reading comprehension and writing, and the two dimensions combined would contribute to better performance among ELLs.

Significance - In the teaching and learning of the English language, emphasis should be given to vocabulary building in terms of enriching learners’ vocabulary storage as well as improving vocabulary usage in context by understanding meaning.

Keywords: Vocabulary knowledge, breadth of vocabulary knowledge, depth of vocabulary knowledge, academic reading, academic writing. 


Tour Guide Simulation: A Task-Based Learning Activity to Enhance Young Thai Learners’ English
1 Budsaba Kanoksilapatham & 2 Todsapon Suranakkharin
1Department of English, Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University, Thailand
2 Department of English, Faculty of Humanities, Naresuan University, Thailand
1 Corresponding authorkanoksib@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Purpose - This study aimed to explore the effects of task-based language teaching (TBLT) with a tour guide simulation as a focused activity on young Thai learners’ English speaking skill and their attitudes towards the instruction.

Methodology Based on a three-phase framework (i.e., pre-task, during-task, and post-task), TBLT was implemented with a Grade 4 class for a period of eleven weeks. Initially, a set of English lessons developed based on the context of local tourist attractions was implemented at the pre-task stage. In the second stage, a simulated tour guide task was used to assess their ability to turn the language input into a practical and authentic use of English speaking. Subsequently, corrective feedback on each student’s performance was provided, and their attitudes towards the instruction were examined at the last stage.

Findings The students were able to satisfactorily complete the tour guide task in English, indicating the potential of the task as a device to strengthen their speaking skill. Moreover, they generally had a favourable attitude towards the instruction.

Significance These findings are significant for both school teachers and curriculum designers. In addition to confirming the effectiveness of TBLT, this study highlights the promising use of context specific-based lessons and class activities as an avenue for young learners to practice speaking English in a context relevant to them.

 Keywords: Task-based language teaching, tour guide task, elementary English education.


The Validity and Effectiveness of the Reflective-Metacognitive Learning Model to Improve Students’ Metacognition Ability in Indonesia
1Muhali, 2Leny Yuanita, & 3Muslimin Ibrahim
1Faculty of Science and Mathematics Education, IKIP Mataram
2Chemistry Department, UniversitasNegeri Surabaya
3Biology Department, UniversitasNegeri Surabaya
1Corresponding Author: muhali@ikipmataram.ac.id

 ABSTRACT

Purpose - This study investigated the content and construct validity of the Reflective-Metacognitive Learning (RML) Model, and the effectiveness of the RML Model in comparison with Cognitive-Metacognitive Learning (CML) Model in improving students’ metacognitive knowledge, skills, and awareness after the learning process.

Methodology - This experimental study began with developing the RML Model, which covered planning, development and evaluation. A focus group discussion involving four experts in science education was conducted to determine the validity of the RML Model and its supporting devices in terms of content validity and construct validity. An experimental study using a randomized pretest-posttest control group design was then implemented on forty senior high school students to evaluate the effectiveness of the RML Model against the CML Model. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically.

Findings - The results showed that the RML Model was highly valid in terms of content validity and construct validity, Metacognitive knowledge increased to a high degree, while metacognitive skills and awareness increased to a medium degree. Based on the results, it was concluded that the RML Model was valid and more effective than the CML Model in terms of improving students’ metacognitive ability.

Significance - The RML Model, which is marked by the reflection of thinking processes as the core,

is expected to improve students' metacognitive ability.

Keywords: Learning model, RML model, validity of RML model, metacognitive ability, effectiveness of RML model and CML model.


Learner Autonomy of Pre-Service Teachers and its Associations with Academic Motivation and Self-Efficacy
1Muhammet Fatih Alkan & 2Mehmet Arslan
1Department of Educational Sciences, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Turkey
2Department of Primary School Teaching, Girne American University, TRNC
1Corresponding author: mfatihalkan@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Purpose Learner autonomy enables an individual to learn how to cope with novelties without getting any help from others. Considering the rapid changes and transformations of the 21st century, it has become essential for teachers to possess this characteristic. Moreover, measuring learner autonomy is required to determine their levels. Thus, the purpose of this two-phased study was to adapt the Autonomous Learning Scale into Turkish and to investigate academic motivation and self-efficacy as the predictors of autonomous learning.

Methodology In the first phase, the Autonomous Learning Scale was adapted into Turkish with the participation of 335 pre-service teachers. In the second phase of the study, the autonomous learning of pre-service teachers was investigated in terms of a number of demographic variables along with academic self-efficacy and academic motivation using the data obtained from 776 pre-service teachers with a survey method.

Findings For the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis showed that Autonomous Learning Scale was a valid and reliable tool to be used in Turkish samples. For the second phase, the regression analysis revealed that academic self-efficacy and academic motivation were significant predictors of autonomous learning of pre-service teachers. Additionally, their autonomous learning significantly differed in terms of department, high school type, and gender. Furthermore, the GPAs of the pre-service teachers were significantly correlated with their autonomous learning levels.

Significance The Turkish version of the Autonomous Learning Scale was presented to researchers. The relationships between autonomous learning and self-efficacy along with motivation have been asserted in a number of studies. However, the present study not only confirmed the correlations among these variables, but also revealed the predictive powers of these variables on autonomous learning. Therefore, teacher educators and policy makers can gain insights from these findings.

Keywords: Autonomous learning, academic motivation, academic self-efficacy, pre-service teachers.


Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence: Formative Assessment Tools for Mandarin as a Foreign Language
Chan Suet Fong & 1Dorothy DeWitt
1Department of General Studies, Polytechnic of Sultan Azlan Shah, Malaysia
2Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology, University Malaya
1Corresponding author: dorothy@um.edu.my

ABSTRACT

Purpose - Intercultural communicative competence (ICC) is important in intercultural exchange, to address problems and conflicts which may arise due to miscommunication that results from interlocutors’ diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Interlocutors may have different perceptions and interpretations of communicative behaviour. However, cultural and intercultural aspects seem to be ignored in teaching Mandarin as a foreign language (MFL) in Malaysian higher education institutions. Hence, the ICC level among local MFL learners is unknown. In this study, formative assessments were designed in a culturally integrated MFL module to investigate learners’ level of ICC in a selected Malaysian polytechnic.

Methodology The polytechnic was selected as cultural competency was incorporated in the MFL course. A design and developmental research was carried out to design formative assessment for ICC based on experts’ feedback. The assessment comprised Intercultural Discussion and Reflections, Cultural Discovery, Cultural Quizzes and an Intercultural Communicative Task.  They were implemented to assess learners’ ICC.

Findings - The results indicate that different forms of assessment were suitable for assessing the respective competences, and that multiple forms of formative assessment should be employed to assess and improve MFL learners’ ICC.

Significance Instructors in higher education could apply these forms of formative assessment to develop ICC among their MFL learners. The assessments could also be extended to intercultural communication competence development in other languages, which is important in a multicultural and globalized society.   

Keywords: Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC), Mandarin as a foreign language, formative assessment. 


Exploring Service-Learning Practices: Evidence from Pakistan Vocational Education
1Iqbal Ahmad, 2 Hamdan Said, &3Faizah Mohamad Nor
1Faculty of Education, University of Malakand, Pakistan
2School of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
3Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
 Corresponding author: ikbalchitrali@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study explored the perspectives of teachers on outcomes of service-learning participation in vocational training institutes. The main purpose was to gain a better understanding of outcomes concerning service-learning participation of vocational training institute students in Pakistan.

Methodology A total of 315 respondents participated in the study. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected vocational training institutes using a self-designed questionnaire which was drafted and validated after expert approval. The construct validation of the questionnaire was established through Exploratory Factor Analysis.

Findings The findings indicated that participation in service-learning resulted in increased course content knowledge, the development of interpersonal skills, and the development of a volunteering attitude among the vocational institute students.

Significance - This study is one of the few studies related to academic outcomes of vocational education students as a result of service-learning participation. The results facilitate understanding of the pedagogical role of service-learning as a practical teaching approach, and would be of particular interest to employers who are looking for skilled manpower in the current job market.

Keywords: Service-learning practices, learning outcomes, vocational training institutes.


Shipping Management Simulation Game for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Quasi-Experimental Study
1Shanizan Herman Mohd Radzi, 2Wee Hoe Tan & 3Amri Yusoff
1,2&3Faculty of Art, Computing and Creative Industry, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
1School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study examines the effects of a simulation board game for teaching and learning shipping management in higher education. A framework of comprehensive shipping operations is developedaccording to the syllabus of the Shipping Management course at Universiti Utara Malaysia.The course core content in the game covers two main services—liner services and tramp services in the shipping industry.

Methodology A quasi-experimental research design was adopted to measure the effectiveness of the board game in giving students some understanding about shipping operations. Data were gathered from a sample of 73 undergraduate students enrolled in a Shipping Management course, using a non-equivalent control group design. The data were analysed using the McNemar Test to determine the level of understanding in shipping operations.

Findings It was found that using the board game in learning activities contributed to the improvement of students’ knowledge and skills. A performance comparison indicated that there were differences in students’ achievement for the tramp services and liner services contents.

Significance The framework for the shipping management board game aims to provide the best learning experience for students when they immerse themselves in solving problems and making decisions in the game. The framework can be used as a benchmark in the practice of game-based learning, particularly by affording students the opportunity to engage in learning by doing. Furthermore, this frameworkintroduces a tangible problem space through the board game, encouraging students to discover knowledge at their own pace in a non-threatening environment.

Keywords: Simulation board game, shipping management, game-based learning, game mechanics, intended learning outcomes.


The Effect of a Holistic School Improvement Model in Enhancing School Effectiveness in Oman
1Abdo Mohamed Al Mekhlafi & Mohamed El Tahir Osman
College of   Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Oman
1Corresponding author: sep1962@squ.edu.om

ABSTRACT

Purpose - This Study Examined The Impact Of A Holistic School Improvement Model On Overall School Effectiveness, More Specifically, It Attempted To Answer Two Questions: 1) Are There Any Significant Differences In School Performance Between The Control Group And The Experimental Group Before And After The Experiment? 2) Is There Any Significant Improvement In The Experimental Group School Effectiveness Before And After The Experiment?

Methodology - As a part of a four-year longitudinal research project, the study used a quasi experimental research design to examine the impact of a holistic school improvement model on enhancing overall school effectiveness in Oman. The sample consisted of 16 intact classes selected from 8 schools (4 experimental and 4 control groups), with a total of 2378 students (1157 from grade nine classes and 1221 from grade seven classes). The experimental group schools were exposed to a wide range of school improvement activities within a four-year period. A series of workshops on activating the 13 elements of the Innovation Sustainability Wheel (ISW) were delivered to all administrators and teachers at the target experimental group schools, in addition to empowering students through enrichment programs in five subject areas. Data was collected from the Omani Ministry of Education school performance indicators, which included five subject matter achievement tests aggregated over three years.

Findings - The study revealed significant differences in overall school performance across the four years between the control and experimental schools, in favour of the experimental group. Moreover, a significant progression of school effectiveness was observed in the two grade levels of the experimental group.

Significance - The findings are significant in terms of providing educational systems with a workable mechanism for identifying key areas of weaknesses and means of improvement; establishing a chain of actions for activating all interrelated elements that act as driving forces for sustainable change; ensuring that the indicators of school improvement should include both operational processes and students’ learning outcomes; and contributing to the knowledge base in the area of school improvement in terms of a research-based model that has potential implications for practitioners and policy makers.

Keywords: School improvement, school effectiveness, systemic development, students’ performance, basic education.


The Shadow Education System: Students’ Responses to Private Tutorial Learning
1Jayaraman Krishnaswamy, 2Seow Soo Koon & 3Nagaletchimee Annamalai
1Taylor’s Business School, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
2Graduate School of Business
3School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang
1Corresponding author: jayaraman.krishnaswamy@taylors.edu.my

               

ABSTRACT

Purpose-In Malaysia, many families devote a portion of their income to private tutorial learning fees. Many parents send their children to private tutorial learning especially those who are staying in urban cities. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the challenges of shadow education system by analysing the Malaysian secondary school students’ reactions on private tutorial learning.

Methodology-A survey instrument with structured questionnaire is designed on a webpage, was delivered via email and Virtual Learning Environment through Frog Asia, which is the first company that connects Malaysian schools through a single cloud-based learning platform. On-line survey approach is used to its convenience, and cost effective to interact with the respondents who are dispersed in different geographical locations across Malaysia. The convenience sampling technique is used to identify 148 respondents. The unit of analysis is students from three states of Malaysia: Penang, Perak and Johor.

Findings-The significant findings of the study revealed that revealed that the factors that influence students’ choice to attend private tutorial learning are school environment, social influence, rigidity of school system, students learning attitude and parents affordability. The study also revealed that parents’ are forcing excessively on students’ academic choices and this increases tension and anxiety among the children. The research findings show cases the reasons for both students and parents’ choice of sending their children to private tutor. Parental influence can be stressful and traumatic on the learning abilities of students. Besides, it is found that students are missing extra-curricular activities and more focus on machines will affect the refractive power.

Significance-The syllabus of the secondary schools is too pack and the scope is too wide and lead to school teachers to complete the syllabus without in depth teaching and learning activities. Because of peer’s influence, private tuition becomes a routine activity which leads the school students to miss extra-curricular activities. Ultimately, a good outgoing school student will be a potential student for higher education and educationally qualified and skilled person is the timely need for the future economy of Malaysia. Further, the suggestions to education policy makers are not to introduce rigid curricular as rigidity leads to rote learning and produce poor talented children.

Keywords: Private tutorial learning; students’ reactions; social influence; rigidity of school system; parents affordability; theory planned behaviour.


Analisis Semantik Inkuisitif Peribahasa Bahasa Melayu
(Inquisitive Semantics Analysis in the Malay Language Proverbs)
1Mary Fatimah Subet & Mohd Ridzuan Md Nasir
Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
1Corresponding author: sufatimah@unimas.edu.my

ABSTRAK

Tujuan Aspek pengajaran peribahasa harus dianggap sama penting dengan aspek-aspek lain dalam proses pembelajaran bahasa di sekolah. Peribahasa yang melambangkan kebijaksanaan masyarakat Melayu ini semakin terpinggir dalam sistem pendidikan dan menyebabkan falsafah dan akal budi penutur jati tidak dapat diekplorasi sepenuhnya. Semantik inkuisitif merupakan pendekatan kajian makna peribahasa yang melibatkan data, teori, kognitif, falsafah dan akal budi yang digunakan untuk memahami makna peribahasa dengan lebih mendalam dan menyeluruh. Kajian ini bertujuan menggabungjalinkan pendekatan semantik inkuisitif dengan kandungan pengajaran peribahasa melalui pendidikan Bahasa Melayu.

Metodologi Kajian berbentuk kualitatif ini menggunakan data-data peribahasa yang diambil daripada sukatan mata pelajaran Bahasa Melayu tingkatan satu hingga lima. Data-data peribahasa ini dikelaskan mengikut tema-tema yang diperoleh daripada kamus peribahasa. Seterusnya, Rangka Rujuk Silang (RRS) diaplikasikan mengikut kesesuaian konteks pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu. Penganalisisan ini berpandukan data korpus di Pangkalan Korpus Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) dan buku-buku teks Bahasa Melayu sekolah menengah, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM).

Dapatan Hasil kajian ini mendapati dengan penggabungjalinan semantik inkuisitif ke dalam pengajaran peribahasa, pengkaji dapat mencungkil falsafah dan akal budi penutur jati di sebalik makna harfiah peribahasa tersebut dan menjadikan pengajaran dan pembelajaran peribahasa lebih bermakna.

Kepentingan Semantik inkuisitif dilihat dapat digunakan untuk mendalami makna peribahasa sehingga ke akar umbi di samping membantu guru Bahasa Melayu untuk mempelbagaikan kaedah pengajaran peribahasa.

Kata kunci: Pengajaran dan pembelajaran, Bahasa Melayu, peribahasa, makna, semantik inkuisitif.

 ABSTRACT

Purpose - The teaching of proverbs is just as important as other aspects of language learning in school. Yet proverbs, which signify the wisdom of the Malay community, is increasingly neglected within the Malaysian education system, making it difficult to thoroughly explore native speaker philosophy and thought. Inquisitive semantics is an approach to studying the meaning of proverbs that involves data, theory, cognition, philosophy and reasoning to attain a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of their meaning. This research aims to incorporate the inquisitive semantic approach into the teaching of proverbs in Malay Language education.

Methodology - This qualitative study used proverb data sourced from Form One to Form Five Malay language syllabi. The data were classified according to themes derived from a proverb dictionary. Cross reference framework triangulation was then applied according to the context of Malay language learning. Analysis was guided by corpus data from the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) corpus database and Malaysian Ministry of Education secondary school Malay language textbooks.

Findings - The study found that integrating inquisitive semantics into the teaching of proverbs enabled the researcher to bring to light the philosophy and thought behind their literal meanings, thus making the teaching and learning of proverbs more meaningful.

Significant - Inquisitve semantics can be applied to gain a deeper understanding of the intended meaning of Malay proverbs and their origins. It also helps Malay Language subject teachers to diversify their methods of teaching proverbs.

Keywords: Teaching and learning, Malay Language, proverbs, meaning, inquisitive semantics.