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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 18, No.1 Jan 2021

Wu Deli, Amrita Kaur & Rosna Awang-Hashim
Lilian Anthonysamy, Koo Ah Choo & Hew Soon Hin
Nagaletchimee Annamalai, Viktorija Mažeikienė, Balamurugan Tangiisuran & Giedre Valunaite Oleskevicience
Noor Azura Mat Said, Siti Mariam Bujang, Nor Aishah Buang, Harlina Harlizah Siraj @ Ramli & Mohd Nasri Awang Besar
1Wu Deli, 2Amrita Kaur & 3Rosna Awang-Hashim,
1School of Education, Beibu Gulf University, China
2College of Liberal Arts, WenZhou-Kean University, China
3School of Education, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
3Corresponding Author: rosna@uum.edu.my
PurposeGiven the prevalence of mental health issues among young adolescents and its detrimental effects on academic functioning, Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) interventions are becoming extremely valuable. The current study aims to investigate the effectiveness of two types of SEL interventions delivered by two different types of teachers to determine their effectiveness for SEL knowledge, learning anxiety, and intention to drop-out.
MethodologyThis study employed 2 x 2 factorial and between-subject quasi-experimental design, in which intervention type and teacher type were manipulated to produce four different versions of experiments. A total of 209 students (107 boys, 102 girls) from Grade 8 with a mean age of 14.3 years from a Qinzhou City in Southwest China participated in the study.
FindingsFactorial and between-group MANOVA revealed that while psychology teacher was more effective in enhancing SEL knowledge and reducing dropout intention, regular teacher was more effective in reducing learning anxiety. TASSEL intervention was more effective in enhancing SEL knowledge and reducing dropout intention while SEL regular intervention was more effective in reducing learning anxiety. Nevertheless, within-group analysis suggested TASSEL with psychology teacher was the best combination in reducing dropout intention while SEL with psychological teacher was the best combination in reducing learning anxiety.
SignificanceThe results have significance for schools and mental health counselling services. The findings can guide the effective design of SEL intervention and appropriate teachers to deliver it.
Keywords: Social-Emotional Learning, Teacher autonomy support, Learning anxiety, Dropout intention.
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1Lilian Anthonysamy, 2Koo Ah Choo & 3Hew Soon Hin
1Faculty of Management
2&3Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: lilian.anthonysamy@mmu.edu.my
PurposeThe rise of digital learning and the prevalence of affordable devices are convenient for young adults who are accustomed to using their digital devices for almost everything such as communication, collaboration, and accessing multiple sources of information for solutions. However, the lack of ability to self-regulate learning processes has led to poor learning performance among undergraduates. Therefore, this study examined the effects of self-regulated learning strategies (SRLS) on learning performance among Malaysian IT undergraduates.
MethodologyA sample of IT undergraduates from private higher education institutions in Malaysia participated in the study. Quantitative data from a total of 563 respondents was collected through questionnaire surveys and analysed using PLS-SEM. The common method variance was utilized in this paper.
FindingsThe findings of this study constitute essential results that three out of four SRLS domains (cognitive engagement, resource management, and motivational beliefs) positively influenced the students’ perception of learning performance.
SignificanceThis study provides insight into the best SRLS to excel in digital learning for deeper learning particularly in the Malaysian context. Implications of the findings on higher education institutions as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning strategies, digital learning, higher education, learning performance, subjective learning outcomes.
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1Nagaletchimee Annamalai, 2Viktorija Mažeikienė, 3Balamurugan Tangiisuran & 4Giedre Valunaite Oleskevicience
1School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
2&4Institute of Humanities, Mykolo Romerio University
3National Poison Centre & School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: naga@usm.my
PurposeThis mixed-method study investigated the ways smartphone apps promote students’ interaction, collaboration and learning performance.
MethodologyA total of 160 respondents from a Lithuanian university were identified using convenience sampling. A survey was conducted to explore the frequent activities involving interaction, collaboration and learning performance. Focus group interviews were also conducted to determine the apps used in their interactions.
FindingsThe quantitative results suggest that the smartphone apps promote students' interaction, collaboration and improved learning performance. Qualitative results indicate three types of apps that are commonly used for interactions by the undergraduates in Lithuania, namely educational, communication and entertainment apps.
SignificanceThe findings suggest that the instructions can play a constructive role in mediating the learners’ interactions on smartphone apps. As such, the study creates space for instructors to further craft pedagogical practices to better account for learners’ access to smartphone apps. It is hoped that this study will provide a path for educational solutions for instructors and practitioners.
Keywords: smartphone, apps, higher institutions, interaction, collaboration.
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1Wuttiporn Suamuang, 2Surachai Suksakulchai & 3Matthew A. Easter
1Learning Innovation and Technology Program,
2Department of Electrical Technology Education, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
3University of Missouri, Columbia, USA
1Corresponding author: surachai@mail.kmutt.ac.th
PurposeAassignments have been linked with various benefits, including a higher quality of learning and academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between assignment completion and academic achievement in higher education. Specifically, it investigated the impact of instructor feedback and three constructs of self-regulation (self-efficacy, time management, and help-seeking) on assignment completion (time spent on assignments and number of assignments completed) and academic achievement.
MethodologyThe study employed a correlational research design and a self-report survey. Data was collected from 1,106 undergraduate students in six universities in Thailand through a convenience sampling approach. Structural equation modelling was used to establish the strength of the relationships among the constructs of the model.
FindingsThe number of assignments completed was found to have a strong association with academic achievement. Time management was the strongest predictor of the number of assignments completed as well as time spent on assignments. Time management was also the mediator between self-efficacy and the number of assignments completed. However, help-seeking was negatively associated with both the number of assignments completed and academic achievement.
Significance – These results have educational implications, and should be helpful for instructors, instructional designers and educators who may use the information to offer undergraduate students appropriate learning tools, strategies and environments for supporting assignment completion and academic achievement.
Keywords: Academic achievement, assignment completion, help-seeking, Thai higher education, time management, self-efficacy.
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1Noor Azura Mat Said, 2Siti Mariam Bujang, 3Nor Aishah Buang, 4Harlina Harlizah Siraj @ Ramli &
5Mohd Nasri Awang Besar
1Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia 
1,2,4&5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Malaysia
3Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia 
1Corresponding author: ct.mariam@ppukm.ukm.edu.my 
PurposeAlthough there is a growing interest in Critical Thinking Learning Transfer (CTLT), previous studies have presented less detailed information regarding the transfer. Besides, a few pieces of literature have been focusing on medical contexts. In Malaysia, there are small number of reviews regarding the concept compared to other countries. This issue raises the question: How do the medical undergraduates in Malaysia transfer their critical thinking learning? Thus, the authors sought to explore CTLT process among medical undergraduates in Malaysia. Then, the authors synthesized the CTLT model which presented the types of CTLT. 
MethodologyThis study adopted a qualitative case study approach. Eight medical undergraduates in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia were selected using two sampling strategies under the purposive sampling. Data obtained using in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. 
FindingsThe findings showed three types of CTLT, namely near transfer, far transfer, and integrated transfer. Each types of the transfer were specified into components. In summary, the medical undergraduates’ conceptions on the CTLT process led to the development of a model. The model presented the types of CTLT that provide a better understanding about the extension of occurrence of CTLT among the medical undergraduates.  
SignificanceThe CTLT model presented extra value to the description of the CTLT process. This model led to a better understanding of the extension of critical thinking learning transfer occurrence among students especially in the context of early clinical year medical programme. Besides, the model may influence the future development of critical thinking pedagogies. 
Keywords: Conceptualization, critical thinking, learning transfer, extension of occurrence, medical undergraduates, qualitative case study.
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1Meerita Kunna Segaran & 2Zuwati Hasim
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: meerita85@gmail.com
Purpose A consensus has been reached regarding the need for a paradigm shift in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. The literature has shown that self-regulated learning (SRL) has been substantiated as beneficial for students in language learning. It is believed that SRL promotes learner autonomy and successful academic outcome. Despite SRL being a quite popular strategy and is heavily researched, its functionality through the medium of ePortfolio is uncertain. Therefore, this research attempts to analyse how SRL contributes to positive academic outcome using ePortfolio as a medium.
Methodology A meta-analysis was carried out to identify the patterns and gaps in this research area. The results indicated that, out of 204 studies found in the database, only nine met the criteria used in this study.
Findings Findings from this meta-analytic research found that all nine studies included in this review emphasised different research methods and reported significant changes in the students’ academic outcomes. Eight studies were quantitative in nature, with only a single study being qualitative. Based on our interpretive findings, three themes were discovered in this study which are metacognition, collaboration and motivation.
Significance By understanding the roles played by SRL, this study hopes to provide insights to those who would like to use ePortfolio as a medium to promote self-regulated learning. It also gives a clearer view on how ePortfolio as a tool can promote SRL and the result of the meta-analysis may benefit other researchers in helping them to transfer what is applicable in their study.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning, ePortfolio, meta-analysis.
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1Mohamad Mahathir Shamsulbahri & 2Norehan Zulkiply
Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia
2Corresponding author: znorehan@unimas.my
Purpose The present study examined the effect of Directed Activity Related to Texts (DARTs) and gender on students’ achievement in Chemistry. The present study focused on the qualitative analysis component of Chemistry which has been perceived as being most difficult among students.
Methodology The study involved 120 form four science stream students from two local fully residential schools. In a quasi-experiment, participants studied the qualitative analysis of salt topic using one of these three instructional methods: Experiment, DARTs, and Combination of Experiment and DARTs; and later their knowledge about salt was tested.
Findings Results of a two-way independent ANOVA performed on the experiment data revealed a significant main effect of Instructional method—the mean scores for the combined method group was the highest, followed by the DARTs group and then the Experiment group. Further analysis using an independent t-test showed that the difference in mean scores between the DARTs and Experiment groups was significant. It is argued that participants’ learning in the Combined method group might have been enhanced by the DARTs instructional method. The effect of gender and the interaction effect between the variables were not significant.
Significance The present findings provides experimental evidence regarding the role of the DARTs instructional method in enhancing qualitative analysis learning in Chemistry. The present findings also provide insights to educators on DARTs as an alternative methods of teaching and learning qualitative analysis topics in Chemistry.
Keywords: directed activity related to texts, qualitative analysis, chemistry, students’ achievement, salt topic, gender.
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1Rasheed Mohammad Nassr, 2Alia Ahmed Aldossary & 3Haidawati Nasir
1&3Malaysian Institute of Information Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), Malaysia
2Community College Dammam, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, University of Dammam Saudi Saudi Arabia
1Corresponding author: rasheed@unikl.edu.my
Purpose This study explored students’ perspective of using emotion-aware Vertual Learning Environment (VLE) in Malaysia’s higher education institutions. The purpose is to investigate the relationships among dimensions of Technology Readiness Index (TRI), attitude, intention to use VLE, and lecturer interaction. The outcomes concerned the emotions involved in the educational process of Malaysia’s higher education institutions.
Methodology Quantitative data were collected via an online survey from 260 students. An empirical analysis was then conducted using structural equation modelling (Smart PLS) in two phases: (1) examining the direct effect of students’ attitude on VLE adoption intention and (2) examining the indirect effect of constructs using lecturer interaction as a mediator.
Findings The findings revealed a significant mediating role of lecturer interaction on the relationship between attitude and intention to use VLE across the student cohort. Inhibitors, such as insecurity and discomfort, were less significant in affecting students’ attitude towards emotion-aware VLE. The results indicate that students are motivated to use VLE when lecturers understand their emotions and react accordingly.
Significance This is one of the studies pertaining to emotions in VLE and lecturer interaction in higher education institutions. The results facilitate an understanding of the pedagogical role of lecturer interaction as a practical learning motivation. It is of particular interest to curriculum and e-learning stakeholders looking to improve students’ interactions with the VLE systems. Apart from extending the current literature, this study has significant practical implications for education management in higher learning institutions.
Keywords: Emotion-Aware VLE, Technology Readiness Index (TRI), Attitude, Intention to Use, Lecturer Interaction, online learning, Smart PLS, Higher Education.
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1Mazura Jamalai@Jamali & 2Pramela Krish
1School of Language Civilisation and Philosophy, Universiti Utara Malaysia
2Centre for Research in Language and Linguistics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
1Corresponding author:  jmazura@uum.edu.my
Purpose –  This study was initiated to explore students’ utilisation of the online discussionforum (ODF) via the university Learning Management System to assist English for Specific Purpose (ESP) students to execute and construct their final group task project, namely the Company Profile (CP).
Methodology –  A case study guided by Socio constructivism theory and Partnership of the 21st Century Learning Framework was employed. A total of 26 undergraduate students participated voluntarily in the ODF. The group project was carried out virtually among group members in three online sessions. Prior to the project, students were briefed by the instructor and questions were posted to students via the portal in stages to carry out the discussion online. Besides the online postings in the platform, students reflected on their online learning experiences in their reflective journals and took part in the interviews. The findings were qualitatively analysed and reported.
Findings –  The findings indicated that students value the learning experience and perceived the virtual setting as beneficial in assisting English language learning, as well as fostering the 21st century skills. The data from the online postings, reflective journals and interviews were grouped into several themes which provided significant aspects of their positive inclination in using ODF for their language learning facilitation and fostering of skills. The positive insight and impact on how the ODF assisted the students’ English language learning were realised in students’ Linguistic Attainment. Meanwhile, the idea of Flexibility Trait, Reference for Documentation, Confidence Increase and Attentiveness Provision were identified as influential factors on the students’ optimistic views on the usage of ODF. The students value the learning experience and also view the online environment as an inclusive venue to develop critical thinking, leadership, discipline, time management, and digital skills. Overall, this study revealed that practice in the virtual environment using ODF should be implemented in the English classroom with the belief that such mode of learning would contribute to the development language and enhancement of important skills for their future.
Significance: The ODF platform demonstrated the potential for convenience, flexibility, and linguistic advancement amongst students for discussing and sharing knowledge relative to their CP construction and its execution. The non-threatening learning and the conducive atmosphere of their group discussion experience also supported active participation, in which passive participants had more opportunities to express their opinions confidently.
Keywords: Online discussion forum; English for Specific Purpose; language learning experience, 21st Century Skills.
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1Md Jais Ismail, 2Loo Fung Chiat, 3Azu Farhana Anuar
1Faculty of Music , Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Music, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia
3Student Development and Campus Lifestyle (SDCL), Universiti Kuala Lumpur
2Corresponding author: lfc@upm.edu.my
Purpose –  Music class should function as a class that triggers joy and a platform for students to express their feelings. Based on observation, there are music teachers who teach singing and playing musical instruments traditionally based on teacher-centered approach. This has caused music classes to become passive and dull, with unexcited students that would cause them to be out of focus in the class. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of rhythmic movements, using one of the components from Dalcroze’s Eurhythmics as an activity to develop active and fun music classes, hence to improve students’ music performance skills.
Methodology –  The study was carried out within the framework of a ten-week action-research design involving 35 primary school students at Putrajaya, Malaysia. Data collection was through group observation on students’ musical behaviours. Researchers also conducted an in-depth interview with rhythmic movement experts.
Findings –  Result shows that there is a significant changing of musical behaviours among primary students from week 8 to week 10. Experts agreed that rhythmic movement can create a meaningful music class with an active participation by students. There are three rhythmic procedures recommended by the experts to strengthen a music class pedagogy.
Significance –  Learning music through movements has turned music class into active and fun. Rhythmic movement activity makes this intention to become more meaningful. The study helps students to explore music through movements while they have the chance to play, communicate to each other, learn through observation and express their creativity in their own way. This intervention helps students to grasp almost all the music concepts while doing activities. This study also provides ideas for teachers to integrate rhythmic movements in music instructional process.
Keywords: Dalcroze Eurhythmics, rhythmic movement, music education, qualitative, primary students, singing, playing percussion.
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(The Importance of the Arabic Language Schemata towards Understanding of the Quran and Memorisation Achievement)
1Zahriah Hussin,2Nik Farhan Mustapha, 3Pabiyah Toklubok@Hajimaming, 4Majdan Alias & 5Muhd Zulkifli Ismail
1,2,3&5Fakulti Bahasa Moden dan Komunikasi, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
4Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia
1Corresponding author: farhan@upm.edu.my
Tujuan –  Walaupun pendidikan tahfiz berkembang pesat mutakhir ini, pencapaian hafazan al-Quran di institusi tahfiz didapati masih kurang memberangsangkan. Salah satu faktor kelemahan pencapaian hafazan dipercayai berpunca daripada kelemahan memahami makna ayat al-Quran dalam kalangan pelajar tahfiz. Walaupun banyak kajian telah dijalankan, namun terdapat jurang pengetahuan tentang faktor di sebalik masalah kefahaman al-Quran. Sementara itu, beberapa sarjana Islam didapati menekankan pengajaran bahasa Arab dalam sistem pendidikan tahfiz. Justeru, kajian ini meneroka kepentingan skemata bahasa Arab dalam meramal pencapaian hafazan melalui kefahaman al-Quran.
Metodologi –  Dengan mengambil pendekatan kuantitatif, kajian ini menyelidiki pengaruh skemata bahasa Arab terhadap pencapaian hafazan dalam kalangan pelajar tahfiz yang mempunyai latar belakang pengajian bahasa Arab. Faktor pengantara, iaitu kefahaman al-Quran turut diteliti. Kajian dijalankan terhadap 246 sampel dari empat buah institusi tahfiz di Malaysia yang mensyaratkan pelajar mempunyai skemata bahasa Arab pada peringkat Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui teknik ujian bagi mengukur tahap skemata bahasa Arab yang terdiri daripada nahu, saraf dan kosa kata, tahap kefahaman al-Quran dan juga pencapaian hafazan.
Dapatan –  Hasil analisis menggunakan Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) dan prosedur Bootstrapping menunjukkan bahawa skemata bahasa Arab mempunyai kesan langsung dan kesan tidak langsung terhadap pencapaian hafazan melalui kefahaman al-Quran.
Signifikan –  Dapatan kajian ini menjelaskan bahawa skemata bahasa Arab dan kefahaman al-Quran menjadi faktor peramal yang relevan terhadap pencapaian hafazan.
Kata kunci: skemata Arab, kefahaman al-Quran, pencapaian hafazan, nahu, kosa kata.
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Purpose –  Even though tahfiz education has been developing tremendously lately, memorisation achievement of the Quran at tahfiz institutions is still not very encouraging. One factor leading to this situation among tahfiz students is believed to originate from their weakness in understanding the meaning of Quranic phrases. Despite the fact that a lot of research has been carried out, there still exists a knowledge gap about the factors underpinning the problem of understanding the Quran. In the meantime, a few Islamic scholars have been found to be emphasising on the teaching of the Arabic language in the tahfiz education system. Thus, this research is aimed at exploring the importance of the Arabic language schemata in predicting memorisation achievement through understanding of the Quran.
Methodology –  Utilising the quantitative approach, this research explores the influence of the Arabic language schemata in memorisation achievement among tahfiz students who possess knowledge of the Arabic language. The mediating factor, which is the understanding of the Quran was investigated. Research was carried out on 246 samples from four tahfiz institutions in Malaysia that had made it compulsory for students to possess the Arabic language schemata at Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) level. Data collection was carried out through testing techniques to measure the Arabic language schemata level that comprised of nahu (Arabic syntax), saraf (Arabic morphology) and vocabulary, the understanding level of the Quran and also memorisation achievement.
Findings –  The results of the analysis using the Partial Least Square - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Bootstrapping procedure showed that the Arabic language schemata had direct and indirect effects on memorisation achievement through understanding of the Quran.
Significance –  The findings of this research clearly show that the Arabic language schemata and understanding of the Quran are relevant predicting factors for memorisation achievement.
Keywords: Arabic language schemata, understanding of the Quran, memorisation achievement, syntax, vocabulary.